The line through P and -P is a vertical line which does not intersect the elliptic curve at a third point; thus the points P and -P cannot be added as previously. It is for this reason that the elliptic curve group includes the point at infinity O. By definition, P + (-P) = O. As a result of this equation, P + O = P in the elliptic curve group . O is called the additive identity of the elliptic curve group; all elliptic curves have an additive identity.